Berlin is the federal capital of Germany and one of the 16 states that make it up.
It is about seventy kilometers to the west from the Polish border, between the plains of Barnum and Teltow, as the Spree River penetrates it, and the city is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg from all sides.
With a population of nearly 3.5 million, it is the largest city in Germany and the second largest in the European Union after London.
Berlin extends over an area of 891 square kilometers and is located in northeastern Germany, approximately 70 kilometers from the Polish border.
The first mention of the modern city of Berlin dates back to the year 1244 AD, when it formed an economic unit with the city of Keln, then the two cities united politically in 1307, with time their name becoming Berlin.
The city of Berlin became a center of royal residence, and the capital of the state in 1701 AD, when Prince Friedrich III was crowned King of Prussia, and this alleviated the severity of the situation in which the city was, and during this period Berlin witnessed the construction of distinguished buildings, as it became one of the major industrial cities in the country.
Napoleon's forces occupied the city in 1814 AD after the Battle of the Nations in Leipzig.
Berlin became the capital of Germany in 1871 AD, but after Germany's defeat in World War I, this led to a major crisis in the country.
It is noteworthy that Berlin, despite the economic and political conditions in the country, has become the capital of culture on the level of the continent of Europe.
In 1933 AD, Berlin witnessed campaigns of arrest of Jews, communists, political opponents and others under the command of German Chancellor Adolf Hitler. - At the outbreak of World War II, the city fell into the hands of the Allies on May 8, 1945 AD, after being bombed, and as a result, two-thirds of its buildings and archaeological and historical monuments were destroyed.
The city was rebuilt and divided as a result of the destruction left by World War II. It was divided into four sectors, where the Soviets controlled the eastern sector, the Americans the southwestern part, the British the western part, and the French the northwestern part. After that, the German Democratic Republic was established in 1949 AD, and thus East Berlin became its capital.
A wall called the Berlin Wall was built in 1961 AD around the city to prevent residents subject to the city from moving to other German regions, and since that time it has become impossible for East Berliners to move to West Berlin to visit their relatives and friends.
The collapse of the wall and the reunification of Berlin on the date of November 9, 1989 AD happened in an unexpected way, months after the citizens of the German Republic infiltrated Hungary and the Soviet Union, and thus many celebrations took place in Berlin and other German cities.
Germany was officially unified in 1990 AD, and its capital, Berlin, became the seat of the federal government and an important political center. Foreigners in Berlin constitute 13.5% of its population and come from more than 185 countries, the largest part of whom are Turkish immigrants (about 250,000 Turks). The majority of Berlin's population is "non-religious", while Protestant Christians make up 19.4%, Catholic Christians 9.4% and 8.8% of Muslims.
The most common foreign languages in Berlin besides German are Turkish, Arabic, Russian and Polish.